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A History of the Peninsula war 半岛战争史

SECTION I: CHAPTER V
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    THETREACHERYATBAYONNE

    ThenewsoftheabdicationofCharlesIVwasreceivedwithuniversaljoy.TheriotersofAranjuezdispersedaftersalutingthenewsovereign,andallowedGodoytobetakenoff,withoutfurthertrouble,tothecastleofVillaviciosa.Madrid,thoughMuratwasnowalmostatitsgates,gaveitselfuptofeastsandprocessions,afterhavingfirstsackedthepalacesofthePrinceofthePeaceandsomeofhisunpopularrelationsandpartisans.OrgpletelyignorantofthepersonalcharacterofFerdinandVII,theSpaniardsattributedtohimallthevirtuesandgraces,andblindlyexpectedtheorgmencementofagoldenageasifthesonofCharlesIVandMariaLuisawaslikelytobeageniusandahero.

    Lookingatthegeneralsituationofaffairs,therecanbenodoubtthatthewisestcoursefortheyoungkingtohavetakenwouldhavebeentoconcentratehisarmy,puthispersoninsafety,andaskNapoleontospeakoutandformulatehisintentions.Insteadoftakingthis,theonlymanlycourse,FerdinandresolvedtothrowhimselfontheEmperor'smercy,asifthefallofGodoyhadbeenNapoleon'sobject,andnottheconquestofSpain.AlthoughMurathadactuallyarrivedatMadridonMarch23,withagreatbodyofcavalryand20,000foot,theKingenteredthecitynextdayandpracticallyputhimselfinthehandsoftheinvader.HewroteafulsomelettertoNapoleonassuringhimofhisdevotion,andbeggingoncemoreforthehandofaprincessofhishouse.

    HisreceptioninMadridbytheFrenchoughttohaveundeceivedhimatonce.TheambassadorBeauharnais,aloneamongtheforeignministers,refrainedfromacknowledginghimasking.Muratwasequallyrecalcitrant,andmoreovermostrudeanddisobliginginhislanguageandbehaviour.ThefactwasthattheGrand-DukehadsupposedthathewasenteringMadridinordertochaseoutGodoyandruleinhisstead.Thepopularexplosionwhichhadswept[p.44]awaythefavouriteandtheoldking,andsubstitutedforthemayoungandpopularmonarch,hadfoiledhisdesign.HedidnotknowhowBonapartewouldtakethenewsituation,andmeanwhilewassurlyanddiscourteous.ButhewasdeterminedthatthereshouldatleastbegroundsprovidedforabreachwithFerdinand,iftheEmperorshouldresolvetogoonwithhisoriginalplan.

    Accordingly,henotonlyrefusedtoacknowledgethenewking'stitle,buthastenedtoputhimselfinsecretorgmunicationwiththedethronedsovereigns.Theywereonlytooeagertomeethimhalfway,andMariaLuisaespeciallywashalf-madwithrageatherson'ssuccess.AtfirstsheandherhusbandthoughtofnothingbutescapingfromSpain:theybeggedMurattopassontotheEmperorlettersinwhichtheyaskedtobepermittedtobuyalittleestateinFrance,wheretheymightenjoyhisprotectionduringtheirdecliningyears.Buttheybeggedalsothat'thepoorPrinceofthePeace,wholiesinadungeoncoveredwithwoundsandcontusionsandindangerofdeath,'mightbesavedandallowedtojointhem,'sothatwemayalllivetogetherinsomehealthyspotfarfromintriguesandstatebusiness[40].'

    Muratsawthattheangryoldqueenmightbeutilizedtodiscreditherson,andpromisedtosendoneverythingtoNapoleon.AtthefirstwordofencouragementgivenbytheGrand-Duke'sagent,DeMonthion,MariaLuisabegantocovermanysheetswithabuseofherson.'Heisfalsetothecore:hehasnonaturalaffection:heishard-heartedandnowiseinclinedtoclemency.Hehasbeendirectedbyvillainsandwilldoanythingthatambitionsuggests:hemakespromises,butdoesnotalwayskeepthem[41].'Againshewrites:'Frommysonwehavenothingtoexpectbutoutragesandpersecution.Hehasorgmencedbyforgery,andhewillgoonmanufacturingevidencetoprovethatthePrinceofthePeacethatinnocentandaffectionatefriendoftheEmperor,theDukeofBerg,andeveryFrenchman!mayappearacriminalintheeyesoftheSpanishpeopleandofNapoleonhimself.Donotbelieveawordthathesays,forourenemieshavethepowerandmeanstomakeanyfalsehoodseemtrue[42].'InanotherlettershesaysthattheriotsofAranjuezwerenogenuineexplosionof[p.45]popularwrath,butadeliberateplotgotupbyherson,whospentcountlesssumsondebauchingthesoldieryandimportingruffiansfromMadrid.Hegavethesignalfortheoutbursthimselfbyputtingalampinhiswindowatafixedhourandsoforth[43].

    FindingtheQueeninthisstateofmind,MuratsawhiswaytodealingadeadlyblowatFerdinand:withhiscounselandconsentCharlesIVwasinducedtodrawupandsendtoBonaparteaformalprotestagainsthisabdication.Hewasmadetodeclarethathisresignationhadnotbeenvoluntary,butimposedonhimbyforceandthreats.Andsohe'throwshimselfintothearmsofthegreatmonarchwhohasbeenhisally,andputshimselfathisdispositionwhollyandforeverypurpose[44].'ThisdocumentplacedinNapoleon'shandsthepreciseweaponwhichherequiredtocrushKingFerdinand.IftheEmperorchosetotakeitseriously,hecoulddeclarethenewmonarchausurperalmostaparricidethelegalityofwhoseaccessionhadbeenvitiatedbyforceandfraud.

    AsamatteroffactBonaparte'smindhadlongbeenmadeup.TherevolutionofAranjuezhadbeenasurpriseandadisappointmenttohim:hisdesignsagainstSpainweremadeinfinitelymoredifficultofrealizationthereby.WhilehehadonlytheweakandunpopulargovernmentofGodoyandCharlesIVtodealwith,hehadfanciedthatthegamewasinhishands.IthadbeenmorethanprobablethatthePrinceofthePeacewouldtakefright,andcarryofftheKingandQueentoAmericainwhichcasehewould,asitwere,findSpainleftderelict.If,however,theemigrationdidnottakeplace,anditbecamenecessarytolayhandsonCharlesandhisfavourite,NapoleoncalculatedthattheSpaniardswouldbemorepleasedtoberidofGodoythanangrytoseeforceemployedagainsthim.Hewassoprofoundlyignorantofthecharacterofthenation,thatheimaginedthatafewhigh-soundingproclamationsandpromisesofliberalreformswouldinducethemtoacceptfromhishandsanynewsovereignwhomhechosetonominate.Itwasclearthattheaccessionofayoungandpopularkingwouldmakemattersfarmoredifficult.ItwasnolongerpossibletoposeasthedelivererofSpainfromtheshamefulpredominanceofGodoy.AnymoveagainstFerdinandmustbearthecharacterofanopenassaultonthenationalindependenceofthekingdom.

    [p.46]

    ButBonapartehadgonetoofartorecede:hehadnotmoved100,000menacrossthePyrenees,andseizedPampelunaandBarcelona,merelyinorderthathistroopsmightassistatthecoronationceremoniesofanotherBourbonking.Inspiteofalldifficultieshewasresolvedtopersevereinhisiniquitousplan.Hewouldnotrecognizethenewmonarch,butwouldsweephimaway,andputinhisplacesomememberofhisownfamily.ButhischoseninstrumentwasnottobeMurat,butoneoftheBonapartes.HeknewtoowelltheDukeofBerg'srestlessspiritandoverweeningambitiontotrusthimwithsogreatachargeasSpain.AndhewasrightwithonlyNaplesathisbackJoachimwaspowerfulenoughtodohismastergraveharmin1814.Thetoolwastobeoneofhisownbrothers.ItwasonthenightofMarch26thatthenewsoftheabdicationofCharlesIVreachedhim:onthemorningofthetwenty-seventhhewrotetoAmsterdamofferingLouisBonapartethechanceofexchangingtheDutchfortheSpanishcrown.Theproposalwasmadeinthemostcasualform'YousaythattheclimateofHollanddoesnotsuityou.Besidesthecountryistoothoroughlyruinedtoriseagain.Givemeacategoricalanswer:ifInominateyouKingofSpainwillyoutaketheoffer;canIcountonyou?[45]'Louisverywiselyrefusedtheprofferedcrown:buthisweakerbrotherJoseph,tiredofNaplesanditsbrigands,madenoscrupleswhenthesameproposalwaslaidbeforehim.

    ThislettertoLouisofHollandhavingbeenwrittenonthefirstnewsoftheeventsatAranjuez,andfourdaysbeforeMuratbegantosendinhisownplansandthelettersofprotestfromtheKingandQueenofSpain,itisclearthattheEmperorhadneveranyintentionofrecognizingFerdinand,andwasonlyplayingwithhimduringthemonththatfollowed.ItwasnotinmerecautionthatBeauharnais,theambassador,andMurat,themilitaryrepresentative,ofFrance,werebiddennevertoaddressthenewsovereignaskingbutasPrinceoftheAsturias,andtoactasifCharlesIVwerestilllegallyreigninguntiltheyshouldhavespecificdirectionsfromParis[46].

    [p.47]

    Thisstateofsemi-suspendedrelationslastedforafortnight,fromFerdinand'sarrivalinMadridonMarch24,downtohisdeparturefromitonApril10.Theywereveryunorgfortableweeksforthenewking,whogrewmorealarmedaseachdaypassedwithoutaletterfromParisratifyinghistitle,whileFrenchtroopscontinuedtopourintoMadridtillsome35,000wereassembledinitanditssuburbs.

    AveryfewdaysafterhisaccessionFerdinandwasinformedthatitwasprobablethatNapoleonwasintendingavisittoMadrid,andwasatanyrateorgingasfarasBayonne.HeimmediatelysentoffhiseldestbrotherDonCarlos(theherooftheunhappywarsof1833-40)toorgplimenthispatron,andifnecessarytoreceivehimatthefrontier[April5].TwodayslaterthereappearedinMadridanewFrenchemissary,GeneralSavaryafterwardsDukeofRovigowhopurportedtoorgeasBonaparte'sharbinger,chargedwiththedutyofpreparingMadridforhisarrival.HecarriedthefarcesofarthatheaskedforapalacefortheEmperor'sresidence,producedtrunksofhisprivateluggage[47],andbegantorefurnishtheapartmentsgrantedhim.ThatheboresecretordersforMuratweknowfromthelatter'sdispatches,butthiswasonlyhalfhistask.NapoleonhadconfidedtohimverbalinstructionstolureFerdinandtoorgeouttomeethiminthenorthofSpain,amongtheFrencharmiesmassedinBiscayandNavarreifpossibleeventogethimtoBayonneonFrenchsoil.InhisSt.HelenamemoirsNapoleondeniesthis,andSavaryinhisautobiographyalsostatesthathedidnotactthepartoftempterormakeanypromisestotheyoungking:thejourneytoBayonne,hesays,wasasillyinspirationofFerdinand'sown.ButneitherBonapartenorSavaryarewitnesseswhomonewouldbelieveontheirmostsolemnoath.Theformerweknowwell:thelatterhadbeenoneofthepersonsmostimplicatedintheshockingmurderoftheDucd'Enghien.WhenwefindtheSpanishwitnesses,whoconversedwithSavaryduringhisshortstayinMadrid,agreeingthatthegeneralpromisedthatNapoleonwouldrecognizeFerdinandasking,givehimanimperialprincessaswife,andtakehimintofavour,weneednotdoubtthem.Itisnotdisputed[p.48]thatSavary,unlikeMuratandBeauharnais,regularlyaddressedhisvictimbytheroyaltitle,anditiscertainthathestartedinhisorgpanyandactedashiskeeperduringthejourney[48].Themovethatheatfirstproposedwasnotalongone:thegeneralsaidthataccordingtohisadvicestheEmperormustbedueatBurgosonApril13:itwouldbetimeenoughtostarttomeethimonthetenth.BurgoslieswellinsidethefrontiersofCastile,andifitwaspackedwithFrenchtroops,sowasMadrid:oneplacewasnomoredangerousthantheother.

    ExactlyhowfartheperjuriesofSavarywent,orhowfarhewasapprisedofhismaster'sfinalintentions,wecannottell,butitiscertainthatonApril10hesetoutfromMadridintheKing'sorgpany:withthemwentEscoiquiz,Ferdinand'sclericalconfidant,Cevallostheministerofforeignaffairs,andhalfadozendukesandmarquiseschosenfromamongtheKing'soldpartisans.ToadministeraffairsinhisabsenceFerdinandnominateda'Junta'orcouncilofregency,withhisuncleDonAntonio,asimpleandverysillyoldman,atitshead[49].

    OnreachingBurgos,onApril12,thepartyfoundmassesofFrenchtroopsbutnosignsofNapoleon.Savaryappearedvexed,saidthathiscalculationmusthavebeenwrong,andgottheKingtogoforwardtwomorestages,asfarasVittoria,atthesouthernfootofthePyrenees[April14].HereFerdinandreceivedanotefromhisbrotherDonCarlos,whomhehadsentahead,sayingthatBonapartehadbeenlingeringatBordeaux,andwasnotexpectedatBayonnetillthefifteenth.Ferdinand,alwaystimidandsuspicious,wasgettingrestive:hehadnothingonpapertoassurehimofNapoleon'sintentions,andbegantosuspectSavary'sblandishments.ThelatterdoubtedforamomentwhetherheshouldnothavethecourtseizedbytheFrenchgarrisonofVittoria,but[p.49]finallyresolvedtoendeavourtogetaletterfromhismaster,whichwouldsufficetolureFerdinandacrossthefrontier.HewasentrustedwithapetitionofthesamecastthatNapoleonhadbeeninthehabitofreceivingfromhiswould-beclient,fullofservileloyaltyanddemandsforthemuch-desiredBonaparteprincess.

    ThefourdaysduringwhichSavarywasabsent,whiletheroyalpartyremainedatVittoria,wereaperiodofharassingdoubttoFerdinand.Hewasvisitedbyallmannerofpersonswhobesoughthimnottogoon,andespeciallybySpaniardslatelyarrivedfromParis,whodetailedallthedisquietingrumourswhichtheyhadheardattheFrenchcourt.Somebesoughthimtodisguisehimselfandescapebynightfromthe4,000troopsoftheImperialGuardwhogarrisonedVittoria.OtherspointedoutthattheSpanishtroopsinBilbao,whichwasstillunoccupiedbytheFrench,mightbebroughtdownbycross-roads,andassumechargeoftheking'spersonhalfwaybetweenVittoriaandthefrontier,inspiteofthe600Frenchcavalrywhichescortedthecavalcade.GuardedbyhisownmenFerdinandmightretireintothehillsofBiscay.ButtoadopteitherofthecoursesproposedtohimwouldhaveorgpelledtheKingtoorgetoanopenbreachwithBonaparte,andforthishehadnotsufficientcourage,aslongastherewastheslightestchanceofgettingsafelythroughhistroublesbymereservility.

    OnApril18SavaryreappearedwiththeexpectedorgmunicationfromBayonne.Itwascertainlyoneofthestrangestepistlesthatonesovereigneverwrotetoanother,andoneofthemostcharacteristicproductsofNapoleon'spen.ItwasaddressedtothePrinceoftheAsturias,nottotheKingofSpain,whichwasanominouspreface.ButontheotherhandtheEmperordistinctlystatedthat'hewishedtoconciliatehisfriendineveryway,andtofindoccasiontogivehimproofsofhisaffectionandperfectesteem.'Headdedthat'themarriageofyourroyalhighnesstoaFrenchprincessseemsconformabletotheinterestsofmypeople,andlikelytoforgenewlinksofunionbetweenmyselfandthehouseofBourbon.'Thecoreofthewholewastheexplicitstatementthat'iftheabdicationofKingCharleswasspontaneous,andnotforcedonhimbytheriotatAranjuez,IshallhavenodifficultyinrecognizingyourroyalhighnessasKingofSpain.OnthesedetailsIwishtoconversewithyourroyalhighness.'Thiswasadouble-edgedsaying:NapoleonhadinhispocketCharles'sprotest,orgplainingthattheabdicationhadbeenforceduponhimbyfears[p.50]forhispersonalsafety:butFerdinandwasnotawareofthefact;indeedhesolittlerealizedhisparent'sstateofmindthathehadwrittentohimbeforequittingMadridinthemostfriendlyterms.IfhehadfathomedthemeaningofNapoleon'scarefullyconstructedsentence,hewouldhavefledforhislifetothemountains.

    ThesewerethemainclausesofNapoleon'sletter,buttheyareembeddedinaquantityofturgidverbiage,inwhichweareonlyuncertainwhetherthehypocrisyorthebadtasteisthemoreoffensive.'Howperilousisitforkingstopermittheirsubjectstoseekjusticeforthemselvesbydeedsofblood!IprayGodthatyourroyalhighnessmaynotexperiencethisforyourselfsomeday!ItisnotfortheinterestofSpainthatthePrinceofthePeaceshouldbehunteddown:heisalliedbymarriagetotheroyalhouseandhasgovernedtherealmformanyyears.Hehasnofriendsnow:butifyourroyalhighnessweretofallintosimilardisgraceyouwouldhavenomorefriendsthanhe.Youcannottouchhimwithouttouchingyourparents.Youhavenorightstothecrownsavethosewhichyourmotherhastransmittedtoyou:ifintryingthePrinceyousmirchherhonour,youaredestroyingyourownrights.Youhavenopowertobringhimtojudgement:hisevildeedsarehiddenbehindthethroneOwretchedHumanity!Weakness,andError,suchisourdevice!Butallcanbehushedup:turnthePrinceoutofSpain,andIwillgivehimanasyluminFrance.'

    InthenextparagraphNapoleontellsFerdinandthatheshouldneverhavewrittentohimintheprecedingautumnwithouthisfather'sknowledge'inthatyourroyalhighnesswasculpable;butIflattermyselfthatIcontributedbymyremonstrancesinsecuringahappyendtotheaffairoftheEscurial.'FinallyFerdinandmightassurehimselfthatheshouldhavefromhisallypreciselythesametreatmentthathisfatherhadalwaysexperiencedwhichagainisadouble-edgedsaying,ifwetakeintoconsiderationthehistoryoftherelationsofCharlesIVandFrance.

    TheKingandhisconfidantEscoiquizreadandrereadthiscuriousdocumentwithoutorgingtoanycertainconclusion:probablytheythought(aswouldanyoneelsewhodidnotknowtheEmperorthoroughly)thatthemeetingatBayonnewouldopenwithascolding,andendwithsometiresomeconcessions,butthatFerdinand'stitlewouldberecognized.Savary'sorgmentarywasreassuring:Spanishwitnessessaythatheexclaimed'Iamreadyto[p.51]havemyheadtakenoffif,withinaquarterofanhourofyourmajesty'sarrivalatBayonne,theEmperorhasnotsalutedyouasKingofSpainandtheIndiesThewholenegotiationwillnottakethreedays,andyourmajestywillbebackinSpaininamoment[50].'

    OnApril19,therefore,theroyalpartysetoutamidthegroansofthepopulaceofVittoria,whotriedtoholdbackthehorses,andtocutthetracesoftheKing'scoach:onthetwentieththeyreachedBayonne.Napoleonentertainedthematdinner,butwouldnottalkpolitics:afterthemealtheyweresenthometothenotveryspaciousormagnificentlodgingspreparedforthem.AnhourlatertheshamelessSavarypresentedhimselfatthedoor,withtheastoundingmessagethattheEmperorhadthoughtmattersover,andhadorgetotheconclusionthatthebestthingforSpainwouldbethatthehouseofBourbonshouldceasetoreign,andthataFrenchprinceshouldtaketheirplace.ApromptacquiescenceinthebargainshouldberewardedbythegiftofthekingdomofEtruria,whichhadjustbeentakenfromFerdinand'swidowedsisterandheryoungson.

    Thepossibilityofsuchanoutragehadneveroccurredtotheyoungkingandhiscounsellors:whensomethingofthekindhadbeensuggestedtothematVittoria,theyhadcriedoutthatitwasinsultingtothehonourofthegreatestherooftheagetodreamthathecouldbeplottingtreachery[51].Andnow,toolate,theylearntthestuffofwhichheroesweremade.EvenwithSavary'swordsringingintheirears,theycouldnotbelievethattheyhadheardaright.Itmustbesomemerethreatintendedtofrightenthembeforenegotiationsbegan:probablyitmeantthatSpainwouldhavetocedesomeAmericancoloniesorsomeCatalonianfrontierdistricts.Nextmorning,therefore,FerdinandsenthisministerCevallostopleadhiscause:Napoleonrefusedtobargainororgpromise:hewantednothing,hesaid,butapromptresignationofhisrightsbythePrinceoftheAsturias:therewasnothinglefttohaggleabout.ItwasgraduallyborneinuponFerdinandthattheEmperormeantwhathehadsaid.Butthoughtimidhewasobstinate,andnothinglikeanabdicationcouldbegotoutofhim.HemerelycontinuedtosendtoNapoleononeagentafteranother[p.52]firsttheministerCevallos,thenhistutorandconfidantEscoiquiz,thenDonPedroLabrador,acouncillorofstate,allchargedwithprofessionsofhisgreatreadinesstodoanything,shortofresigningtheSpanishthrone,whichmightsatisfyhiscaptor.CevallosandEscoiquizhaveleftlongnarrativesoftheirfruitlessembassies.Thatofthelatterisespeciallyinteresting:hewasadmittedtoalongconferencewithBonaparte,inwhichhepliedeveryargumenttoinducehimtoleaveFerdinandonthethrone,aftermarryinghimtoaFrenchprincessandexactingfromhimeverypossibleguaranteeoffidelity.TheEmperorwasreadytolistentoeveryremonstrance,butwouldnotmovefromhisprojects.HelaughedattheideathatSpainwouldriseinarms,andgivehimtrouble.'Countriesfullofmonks,likeyours,'hesaid,'areeasytosubjugate.Theremaybesomeriots,buttheSpaniardswillquietdownwhentheyseethatIofferthemtheintegrityoftheboundariesofthemonarchy,aliberalconstitution,andthepreservationoftheirreligionandtheirnationalcustoms[52].'

    WhensuchwereNapoleon'sideasitwasuselesstoarguewithhim.ButFerdinandrefusedtounderstandthis,andkeptreiteratingallsortsofimpracticableoffersofconcessionandsubservience,whilerefusingtodotheonethingwhichtheEmperorrequiredofhim.Napoleon,muchirritatedattherefusalofsuchapoorcreaturetobowtohiswill,hasleftasketchofhimduringthesetryingdays.'ThePrinceoftheAsturias,'hewrote,'isverystupid,verymalicious,averygreathaterofFranceHeisathoroughlyuninterestingperson,sodullthatIcannotgetawordoutofhim.Whateveronesaystohimhemakesnoreply.WhetherIscoldhim,orwhetherIcoaxhim,hisfacenevermoves.Afterstudyinghimyoucansumhimupinasinglewordheisasulkyfellow[53].'

    AsFerdinandwouldnotbudge,Bonapartehadnowtobringhisseconddevicetothefront.Withtheoldking'sprotestbeforehim,theEmperorcouldsaythatCharlesIVhadneverabdicatedinanyrealsenseoftheword.Hehadbeenmadetosignaresignation'withapistollevelledathishead,'asaleadingarticleintheMoniteurdulysetforth.Suchadocumentwas,ofcourse,worthnothing:thereforeCharleswasstillKingofSpain,andmightsign[p.53]thatsurrenderofhisrightswhichFerdinanddenied.Napoleonpromptlysentfortheoldkingandqueen,whoarrivedunderaFrenchescortonApril30,tendaysaftertheirson'scaptivitybegan.AtBayonnetheyrejoinedtheirdearly-lovedGodoy,whomMurathadextortedfromtheJuntaofRegency,undercoverofaconsentsentbyFerdinandtoNapoleonfromVittoriatwodaysbeforehecrossedthefrontier.

    CharlesIVarrivedinastateoflachrymosecollapse,sankonNapoleon'sbreastandcalledhimhistruefriendandhisonlysupport.'Ireallydonotknowwhetheritishispositionorthecircumstances,buthelookslikeagoodhonestoldman,'orgmentedtheEmperor.'TheQueenhasherpastwrittenonherfacethatisenoughtodefineher.AstothePrinceofthePeace,helookedlikeaprizebull,withadashofCountDaruabouthim.'GodoyandtheQueenhadonlyonethought,toavengethemselvesonFerdinand:afterwhathadtakenplacetheycouldnevergobacktoruleinSpain,sotheycaredlittlewhathappenedtothecountry.AstotheKing,hiswifeandhisfavouritepulledthestrings,andhegesticulatedinthefashionthattheydesired.TheEmperortreatedthemwithanostentatiouspolitenesswhichhehadalwaysrefusedtothenewking:atthefirstbanquetthathegavethemoccurredtheabsurdscene(alreadymentionedbyus),inwhichCharlesrefusedtositdowntotabletillGodoyhadbeenfoundandputnearhim.

    TwodaysaftertheirarrivalNapoleonorgpelledFerdinandtoappearbeforehisparents:hehimselfwasalsopresent.Theinterview[54]orgmencedbyKingCharlesorderinghissontosignaorgpleteandabsoluterenunciationoftheSpanishthrone.Bonapartethenthrewinafewthreateningwords:butFerdinand,stillunmoved,madeasteadyrefusal.Atthistheoldkingrosefromhischairhewashalf-crippledwithrheumatismandtriedtostrikehissonwithhiscane,whiletheQueenburstinwithastreamofabuseworthyofafishwife.Napoleon,horrifiedattheodiousscene,accordingtohisownnarrativeofit,hurriedFerdinand,'wholookedscared,'outoftheroom.

    Thesamenight[May1],Ferdinand'sadvisersbethoughtthemofanewandingeniousmoveweneednotascribeittohisown[p.54]brains,whichweresurelyincapableofthedevice.HewrotetoKingCharlestotheeffectthathehadalwaysregardedtheabdicationatAranjuezasfreeandunconstrained,butthatifithadnotbeenso,hewasreadytolaydownhiscrownagainandhanditbacktohisfather.ButtheceremonymustbedoneinanopenandhonourablewayatMadrid,beforetheCortes.Ifhisparentpersonallyresumedthereinsofpower,hebowedtohisauthority:butifhisageandinfirmitiesinducedhimtonamearegent,thatregentshouldbehiseldestson.

    ThisproposaldidnotsuittheEmperoratall,sohedictatedtotheoldkingalongletter,inwhichtheNapoleonesquephraseologypeepsoutinascoreofplaces.Charlesrefusesallterms,saysthathisson'sconducthad'placedabarrierofbronzebetweenhimandtheSpanishthrone,'andconcludesthat'onlytheEmperorcansaveSpain,andhehimselfwoulddonothingthatmightstirupthefireofdiscordamonghislovedvassalsorbringmiseryonthem'[May2].Ferdinandrepliedwithanequallylongletterjustifyingatlargeallhisconductofthepastyear[May4].

    WhenthingsstoodatthispointtherearrivedfromMadridthenewsofthebloodyeventsofthesecondofMay,whichwehavetorelateinthenextchapter.ThisbroughtNapoleonuptostrikingpoint,andoncemoreheintervenedinhisownperson.HesentforFerdinand,andinthepresenceofhisparentsaccusedhimofhavingstirreduptheriotinthecapital,andinformedhimthatifhedidnotsignanabdicationandanacknowledgementofhisfatherastheonlytruekingbytwelvethatnight'heshouldbedealtwithasatraitorandrebel.'ThisisNapoleon'sownversion[55],butSpanishwitnessessaythatthewordsusedwerethat'hemustchoosebetweenabdicationanddeath[56].'

    ToanyonewhorememberedthefateoftheDucd'Enghiensuchaphrasewasmorethananidlethreat.ItbroughtthestubbornFerdinandtohiskneesatlast.Thateveninghewroteoutasimpleandstraightforwardformofabdication'withoutanymotive,savethatIlimitedmyformerproposalforresignationbycertainproperconditions,yourmajestyhasthoughtfittoinsultmeinthepresenceofmymotherandtheEmperor.Ihavebeenabusedinthemosthumiliatingterms:IhavebeentoldthatunlessImakeanunconditionalresignationIandmyorgpanions[p.55]shallbetreatedascriminalsguiltyofconspiracy.UndersuchcircumstancesImaketherenunciationwhichyourmajestyorgmands,thatthegovernmentofSpainmayreturntotheconditioninwhichitwasonMarch19last,thedayonwhichyourmajestyspontaneouslylaiddownyourcrowninmyfavour[57]'[May6].

    Ferdinandhavingabdicated,NapoleonatonceproducedatreatywhichKingCharleshadratifiedonthepreviousday,twenty-fourhoursbeforehissongavein.Byittheoldman'resignedallhisrightstothethroneofSpainandtheIndiestotheEmperorNapoleon,theonlypersonwhointhepresentstateofaffairscanre-establishorder.'Heonlyannexedtwoconditions:'(1)thatthereshouldbenopartitionoftheSpanishmonarchy;(2)thattheRomanCatholicreligionshouldbetheonlyonerecognizedinSpain:thereshould,accordingtotheexistingpractice,benotolerationforanyofthereformedreligions,muchlessforinfidels.'Ifanythingiswantingtomakethesillyoldmanodious,itisthefinaltouchofbigotryinhisabdication.TherestofthedocumentconsistsofarecitalofthepensionsandestatesinFranceconferredbytheEmperoronhisdupeinreturnfortheabdication.IttookfivedaysmoretoextortfromDonFerdinandaformalcessionofhisultimaterights,asPrinceoftheAsturias,tothesuccessiontothethrone.ItwassignedonMay10,andpurportedtogivehiminreturnapalaceinFranceandalargeannualrevenue.ButhewasreallyputunderclosesurveillanceatTalleyrand'sestateofValen?ay,alongwithhisbrotherDonCarlos,andneverallowedtogobeyonditsbounds.TheEmperor'sletterofinstructionstoTalleyrandisworthquotingforitscynicalbrutality.Hewrotetohisex-minister,whowasmuchdisgustedwiththeinvidiousdutyputuponhim:'Lettheprincesbereceivedwithoutanyshow,butyetrespectably,andtrytokeepthemamused.IfyouchancetohaveatheatreatValen?aytherewouldbenoharminimportingsomeactorsnowandthen.YoumaybringoverMmedeTalleyrand[thenotoriousMmeGrandof1800],andfourorfiveladiesinattendanceonher.Iftheprinceshouldfallinlovewithsomeprettygirlamongthem,therewouldbenoharminit,especiallyifyouarequitesureofher.Theprincemustnotbeallowedtotakeanyfalsestep,butmustbeamusedandoccupied.Iought,forpoliticalsafety,toputhiminBitche[p.56]orsomeotherfortress-prison:butasheplacedhimselfintomyclutchesofhisownfreewill,andaseverythinginSpainisgoingonasIdesire,IhaveresolvedmerelytoplacehiminacountryhousewherehecanamusehimselfunderstrictsurveillanceYourmissionisreallyaveryhonourableonetotakeinthree[58]illustriousguestsandkeepthemamusedisataskwhichshouldsuitaFrenchmanandapersonageofyourrank[59].'Napoleonafterwardsownedthathewasframingwhathecalled'apracticaljoke'onTalleyrand,bybilletingtheSpaniardsonhim.ThePrinceofBeneventohadwishedtomakenoappearanceinthematter,andtheEmperorrevengedhimselfbyimplicatinghiminitasthejailorofhiscaptives.Talleyrand'sangermaybeimagined,andestimatedbyhisafterconduct.

    AtValen?aytheunfortunateFerdinandwasdestinedtoremainfornearlysixyears,notamusinghimselfatallaccordingtoNapoleon'sideasofamusement,butemployedinagreatmanychurchservices,alittlepartridgeshooting,and(sohisunwillingjailortellsus)thespoilingofmuchpaper,notwiththepenbutwiththescissors;forhedevelopedachildishpassionforclippingoutpaperpatternsandbestowingthemoneveryonethathemet.OnecouldpardonhimeverythingifhehadnotspoilthisattitudeasvictimandmartyrbyoccasionallysendingadulatoryletterstotheEmperor,andeventohisownsupplanter,JosephBonapartethenewKingofSpain.
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